Indigo Grätzel Cell (DSSC) 藍染染料敏化太陽能電池
Collaborative swatch between Shih Wei Chieh and Maya Minder
This swatch was created with the aid of many people. Our acknowledge goes to Urs Gaudenz from Gaudilabs, Dr. Marc Dusseiller from Hackteria.org and honorable Prof. Grätzel for sharing his invention of the Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC).
Process of development and research of DSSC (500 words description)
The dye synthesized solar cell in DIY approaches into a speculative role of technics in future e-textiles using implemented dye synthesized solar cells. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC, DSC, DYSC or Grätzel cell) is a low-cost solar cell belonging to the group of thin film solar cells. It is based on a semiconductor formed between a photo-sensitized anode and an electrolyte, a photoelectro- chemical system. The modern version of a dye solar cell, also known as the Grätzel cell, was originally co-invented in 1988 by Brian O'Regan and Michael Grätzel at UC Berkeley and this work was later developed by the aforementioned scientists at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Swiss (EPFL) until the publication of the first high efficiency DSSC in 1991. Michael Grätzel has been awarded the 2010 Millennium Technology Prize for this invention. All Solar Cell Technic is inspired by nature's ability of transforming sun into energy by photosynthesis.
For the creation of this swatch many people and much time was involved to build a functional indigo dyed solar cell for final result. What has been an invention 30 years old only has also become a school experiment that playfully introduces students into the biochemical aspects of photosynthesis. For making it fully functional it is not an facile experiment but demands endurance and many trial and errors. There were many remote sessions inbetween Taiwan and Switzerland with collaborations and the aid of special experts. Our special gratitude goes to Urs Gaudenz offering his laboratory and time as well as Dr. Marc Dusseiller for his technical aid and support as a mentor.
DIY中的染料合成太陽能電池使用已實現的染料合成太陽能電池，在未來的電子紡織品中成為技術的推測性角色。染料敏化太陽能電池（DSSC，DSC，DYSC 或 Grätzel cell）是屬於薄膜太陽能電池組的低成本太陽能電池。它基於在光敏陽極和電解質之間形成的半導體，光電化學系統。染料太陽能電池的現代版本，也稱為Grätzel電池，最初由柏克萊加州大學的Brian O'Regan和Michael Grätzel於1988年共同發明，後來由上述科學家在École Polytechnique Fédéralede 瑞士洛桑（EPFL），直到1991年第一個高效能的染料敏化太陽能發表為止。Michael Grätzel因這項發明而獲得了2010年千禧技術獎。所有太陽能電池技術的靈感都來自自然界通過光合作用將太陽轉化為能量的能力。
為了製作這個樣片，需要很多人和很多時間來構建功能性藍染染色的太陽能電池，以獲得最終結果。僅擁有30年歷史的一項發明已經成為一項學校中的基礎教育實驗，可以有趣地向學生介紹光合作用中的生物化學層面。為了使其功能全面，這不是一個容易的實驗，而是需要耐力和許多嘗試和錯誤。在台灣和瑞士之間，在合作和特殊專家的協助下，有許多遠程會議。我們特別感謝Urs Gaudenz提供的實驗室和時間，以及Marc Dusseiller博士作為導師的技術援助和支持。
List of Materials
ITO Glass (2 per cell) the smaller the better it works (1cm-2,5cm) ITO玻璃（氧化铟锡導電玻璃）
Iodide solution 碘溶液
Titanium Dioxide (power, 1g) 二氧化鈦粉末
Acrylic emulsion (little to mix into the Titanium Dioxide) 壓克力溶液 （加一點到二氧化鈦膠質中）
aligator clips 鱷魚夾
2 clips binder
60 ml Wasser
3ml sodium hydroxide solution 30% / 30%氫氧化鈉溶劑
3g Sodium dithionite (Na2S2O4) / 3克 連二亞硫酸鈉
Indigo Powder / 藍染粉末
—> mixe all in 40 degree, let sit for 30min / 於攝氏40度下混合以上全部，並靜置30分鐘後完成
Manual How to
You need two conductive glasses (ITO), take one and put conductive tape on the in square shape to create an empty square, make sure to use the conductive side of the glass. spill the thik paste on the glass and spread it onto the the surface in a thin layer, let it dry for 2 min. Put the glass (takeoff the tape first) on a cooker to heat up on 60 degrees during 10-20min for hardening the Titanium Dioxid paste. take off and let it cool down.
Dive the plate with the titanium dioxide into the indigo color and let sit for 30sec-1min. Take it out and clean it off with droplets of destilled water, repeat with isopropanol (this helps to let it dry out faster) Take the other conductive glass and draw a thin layer of pencil strokes on it, push hard. Or use a candle and create a thin layer of carbon black on top of the conductive surface.
Put the two glasses in sandwich layer on top of each other. Let free some glass on both sides and fix it with two clip binder. Put dropplets of Iodine solution on the edge of each side, so the liquid can fluid in between the two glasses. Attach on each side (only one layer of glass) the aligatorclips with the multimeter. Now you can mesure the electricity with your digital multimeter (put on step 200mV). Firstly you will see how a high number around 260mV will occur and it will drop down. Then wait for about 5 min and try out with the sunlight/torch how the voltage is changing according to the light exposure.
Parameters to play around
- try out your own protocols by using charcoal powder and acrylic emulsion to mix into the titanium dioxide
- try out different naturla dyes to stain: blueberry, raspberry, butterfly pea tea, chlorophylle
- using different temperatures and durations to heat up the titanium dioxide paste
- take alternative materials: try to replace the glass with transparent conductive bioplastic, paper, kombucha
- Drink beer or butterfly pea tea while doing --> "blau machen" means take time off, take a break.
Process and on going research
Shih Wei Chieh was continuing to research into the material state of the indigo dyed grätzelcell (DSSC) making several tryouts with different Materials: mulberry paper, glycerin, gelatin, laser on blueprint textiles, and various more. His indeep research made vast progress into speculating on DSSC for various materials applied, as well as in shape form and the outcome of voltage production by the cells.