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Katazome etching        

型糊染導電布蝕刻 Katazome Etching Conductive Textile


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敘述 description
該樣片將台灣當地的手工藝和DIY電子製造結合在一起,以蝕刻導電紡織品並創建柔性PCB(印刷電路板)。該實驗的目的是通過將PCB蝕刻與台灣傳統上用於藍染和天然染色的型糊染技法相結合,自導電紡織品上蝕刻掉銅,以製成柔性電路或柔性傳感器。此技法在日本被稱為「型染め」(Katazome)。

米糊將形成一個抗蝕遮罩,能按照定制形狀保護導電紡織品的導電性能。米糊遮罩通常使用模版塗覆,此處的形狀是使用切紙機製成的雙面模版製成的。然後將紡織品及其遮罩浸入由鹽,充氧水飲料(由3%的過氧化氫組成的水溶液)和醋組成的蝕刻浴中。在該過程結束後,紡織品的未覆蓋部分將失去其導電性能,並且受米糊保護的導電電路將保留在紡織品上。這項技術可以避免紡織品於蝕刻中因過度蝕刻而損失其原本的質感。在創建此樣片的過程中,已經對各種米糊的配方進行了實驗,並對幾種導電織品進行了比較,以找到完美的匹配:一種能夠在米糊開始被醋和充氧水融化之前迅速被蝕刻的紡織品。

所有導電紡織品都不相同,在蝕刻浴中不會以相同的方式發生反應。為了避免米糊在蝕刻過程中熔化,需要選擇一種能夠快速反應並失去導電性能的紡織品。比較了四種導電紡織品:Bremen from Shieldex, Pure Copper Polyester Taffeta Fabric from LessEMF, Kassel from Shieldex and Copper Conductive Fabric ZK-230-008mm (PF) from China Emi Shielding。這些紡織品已在不同的時間浸入蝕刻浴中,乾燥並用萬用表測試以確保其導電性。 Shieldex的Bremen蝕刻速度更快,但不適合焊接。 Shieldex的Kassel因其編織而難以蝕刻。 China Emi Shielding的銅導電織物ZK-230-008mm(PF)似乎可以快速蝕刻,但其灰色外觀顯示出持久的導電性。 LessEMF的純銅聚酯塔夫綢織物已獲得最佳效果,其蝕刻過程開始的時間更長,但是在浴中僅暴露15分鐘後,暴露的紡織品就開始絕緣。如果延長浴時間,則55分鐘後會出現白色紡織品底物。

This swatch brings together Taiwanese local craftsmanship and DIY electronics manufacturing to etch conductive textiles and create flexible PCB. The goal of this experiment is to etch away copper from a conductive textile to make a flexible circuit or a flexible sensor by combining PCB (printed circuit board) etching and rice paste resist traditionally used in Taiwan for indigo and natural dyeing. Rice paste resist is also known as Katazome in Japan.

The rice paste will create a mask which will protect the conductive properties of the conductive textiles following a custom-made shape. The rice paste resist is commonly apply using a stencil, here the shape is made using a double-side stencil made of vinyl. The textile and its mask are then immersed in an etch bath made up of salt, oxygenated water 10 volumes (aqueous solution composed by 3% of hydrogen peroxide) and vinegar. At the end of the process, the uncovered parts of the textile will have lost their conductive properties and the conductive circuit, protected by the the rice paste will remain on the textile; this technique permits to preserve the textile subtract. To create this swatch, various recipes of rice paste resist have been experiment and several conductive textiles have been compared to find the perfect match : a textile which will quickly be etched before the rice paste resist could start melting.

All conductive textiles are different and will not react in the same way in the etch bath. To avoid the rice paste resist to melt during the etching process, it requires to select a textile which will quickly react and lose its conductive properties. Four conductive textiles have been compared: Bremen from Shieldex, Pure Copper Polyester Taffeta Fabric from LessEMF, Kassel from Shieldex and Copper Conductive Fabric ZK-230-008mm (PF) from China Emi Shielding. These textiles have been immersed in etch baths during different times, dried and tested with a multimeter to measure their conductivity. Bremen from Shieldex is the quicker to etch but is not suitable for soldering. Kassel from Shieldex, due to its weaving, is difficult to etch. Copper Conductive Fabric ZK-230-008mm (PF) from China EMI Shielding seems to quickly etch but its grey aspect reveal a persistent conductivity. The best results have been obtained with the Pure Copper Polyester Taffeta Fabric from LessEMF, with which the etching process is longer to start but the exposed textile starts to be insulated after only 15 minutes in the bath. If the bath is prolonged, after 55 minutes a white textile substrate appears.
Tests

This swatch has been made in France by Audrey Briot following instructions and advices on rice paste resist given by Lien Wei Ti. If the swatch is meant to use Taiwanese local ressources, rice bran was difficult to find in France. Experiments using tapioca starch, white rice flour and glutinous rice flour shown that rice bran is a key ingredient to make rice paste resist and can not be substituted.

Step-by-step:

The rice paste resist :

The rice paste resist has been made following this recipe recommended by Lien Wei Ti.
Mix 1 volume of water with 1 volume of glutinous rice flour and 1 volume of rice bran (stabilized rice bran in my case, but komon-nuka, defatted rice bran is recommended). You might obtain a dough soft like your earlobe. Then, shape it in one or several doughnut forms, place them in a textile and put them in a steamer for 30-40 minutes. Once the steaming is done, strain the dough, if needed, add up to 20% of water. Add 20% of water to the strained dough and knead.
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The stencil :

The rice paste needs to be applied on both side of the textile. Also, the thickness of the stencil will influence the thickness of the rice paste resist. In this swatch, 3 layers of vinyl have been stacked. You can cut your stencil by hand or by using a vinyl cutter. In both case, remember to make the same shape in mirror. By hand, fold your vinyl and cut both side at the same time. With a vinyl cutter, make sure to make the same shape in mirror.
Circuit A stencil combining a pattern from a traditional Atayal garment (Sitomot Tribe) and the Lick'o'meter circuit made by Zohar for the Flexi PCB workshop.

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Set up your textile (Pure Copper Polyester Taffeta Fabric from LessEMF) between the two layers and tape their sides on a table.

DSCF7793 DSCF7795 Apply the rice paste with a squeegee or a credit card. Make sure the stencil thickness is full of paste. Let it dry slowly. Once dry, with you see the rice paste is not thick enough, apply some for a second time or a third time. When it is totally dry, do the same thing on the back side. When both sides are dry, remove the stencil.

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The etch bath :

Use ustensils which are only dedicated to etching. Mix 2 volumes of salt, 3 of oxygenated water 10 volumes (aqueous solution composed by 3% of hydrogen peroxide) and 4 of white vinegar (10% acidity in my case). The textile is immersed in the etch bath for 15 to 55 minutes. After 15 minutes, the uncovered parts of the textile are insulated, even if they look grey. The textile can stay in the etch bath until the rice paste resist doesn't melt, after 55 minutes in the bath, the white polyester substrat appears.
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Let the textile dry. Once it is dried, use a multimeter to mesure the textile's conductivity. The circuit should have kept its initial conductivity which is 0,5 Ohm/cm. Everything outside of the circuit should be insulated.
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To improve the process, use hydrogen peroxyde in an higher concentration.

- Salt and vinegar etching, Kobakant
- Workshop Batik and Copper fabric etching, Workshop Leaders: Mili Tharakan and Hannah Perner-Wilson during E-Textile Summercamp 2013, using batik.
- Interdigitation for the eTextile matrix sensor, Maurin Donneaud, Cedric Honnet, Audrey Briot, in E-Textile Swatch Exchange 2017 using lard as a mask for etching conductive textile;
- Sensing Dripping, Martin De Bie, in E-Textile Swatch Exchange 2017 using vaseline;

Material list :

- rice bran
- glutinous rice flour
- water
- light textile
- steamer
- strainer
- squeegee or credit card
- vinyl
- a cutter or a vinyl cutter
- Pure Copper Polyester Taffeta Fabric from LessEMF
- white vinegar (10% acidity in my case)
- oxygenated water 10 volumes (aqueous solution composed by 3% of hydrogen peroxide)
- salt
- spoon
- container
- multimeter

- 米糠
- 糯米粉
- 水
-輕紡
-蒸鍋
-過濾器
-刮刀或信用卡
-乙烯基
-切刀或乙烯基切刀
-LessEMF的純銅聚酯塔夫綢面料
-白醋(以我為例,酸度為10%)
-充氧水10體積(水溶液由3%的過氧化氫組成)
- 鹽
-湯匙
- 容器
-萬用表

https://audreybriot.fr/rice-paste-resist-etching-conductive-fabrics/


Page last modified on Saturday June 19, 2021 22:58:39 CST