Indigo Grätzel Cell (DSSC)
Saturday 4th of October
Collaboration between Hackteria members and Tribe Against the Machine
Lecture performance by Sandra Bühler and Maya Minder member of BadLab project
9 am - 9.30am (TWN) 3 am - 3.30 am (ZHR)
Introduction Presentation from Zurich
lecture performance on Indigo: A Chapter into Blue History of Colonialism
9.30 - 10.30 am (TWN) 3.30 am - 4.30 am (ZHR)
indigo dye fermentation introduction
10.30 - 12 am (TWN) 4.30 am - 6 am (ZHR)
BLOCK Indigio textile dying
free work time
12 am - 1 pm (TWN) 6am - 7am (ZHR)
LUNCH BREAK POWER NAPPING
1 pm - 2 pm (TWN) 7am-8am (ZHR)
DIY DSSC making with indigo dyes and berry juice
2 pm - 3 pm (TWN) 8am - 9am (ZHR)
check the converting rate and make it sound
3 pm - 5 pm (TWN) 9am - 11am (ZHR)
free work time
8 pm - 9 pm (TWN) 2 pm - 3 pm (ZHR)
final presentation by all participants
這個在線研討會的一部分是對靛藍商品歷史的一次演講表演，這種看法是通過生態女權主義的觀點引發的，我們想挖掘出後殖民主義，以探究歐洲垂死技術歷史的隱藏痕跡。在發明合成色之前，在紡織品上使用深色光澤是財富，知識和力量的財富。自然傳播的靛藍植物（Indigofera tinctoria）使印度，非洲和中國在歐洲半球有了植物的對應物。也被稱為德國靛藍，它被稱為染色棉或松藍（Isatis tinctoria），並且具有悠久的歷史。兩種植物都帶有“印度糖”的化合物，該化合物通過酶作用將氧化還原氧化成靛藍染料。天然地生產著色劑是複雜的，而隱藏的歷史則主要依賴於商人關於財富，貿易和前現代全球糾纏的故事。直到今天，藍色仍然是基督教徒對瑪莉母親長袍顏色的描述，象徵著沉穩，清晰和距離。在中世紀，以某種方式生產這種著色劑是一個複雜的過程，並成為世界許多文化中一種受到嚴格保護的行會技術：Shibori在日本，Blaudruck，來自法國的Denim，來自斯洛伐克的“Modrotlač”，或“Kékfestés”在匈牙利。
德語用語“ blau machen”，意思是跳過工作或上學並度過閒暇時光。我們發現它某種程度上借鑒了中世紀染藍紡織品的工藝，即“Blaufärben”的工藝。藍色是有毒的，需要化學過程才能首先啟動還原染料浴。我們發現，在中世紀，這與在社區中喝啤酒的慶祝活動有關，因為它需要大量的小便來創建桶染浴。我們以此為出發點，將歷史敘述化為投機性故事，一個探索拋開了時間的節點，而在黑暗中的中世紀，貿易和文化交流的全球，精神，生態相互聯繫也引發了生態女性主義者的觀點。
Lecture Performance on Natural Dye Indigo
Part of this online workshop was an lecture performance into the commodity history of indigo blue approached to ecofeminist views threw the postcolonial we want to dig into hidden traces of history of european dying technics. Before the invention of synthetic colors the run on deep shiny colors in textile was a fortune of wealth, knowledge and power. The Plant indigo (Indigofera tinctoria) which is naturally spread threw India, Africa and China had a counterpart of plant in the European hemispheres. Also known as the German Indigo it is named dyers woad or glastum (Isatis tinctoria) and has a rich history. Both plants carry the chemical compound of glycose indican that turns enzymatically threw a redox-oxidation into indigo dye. As complex it is to produce the colorant naturally, as hidden its history that relied mostly on merchants stories of wealth, trade and pre-modern global entanglements. The color blue until today is relied in christian depictions to the color of Mother Mary's gown and symbolizes calm, clarity and distance. Somehow in medieval times it was a complex process to produce this colorant and became a well guarded guilds technic in many cultures around the world: Shibori in Japan, Blaudruck in Germany, Denim from France, Modrotlač in Slovakia, or Kékfestés in Hungaria.
The highly demand on indigo color was changing global trade rules as merchants started to import the more potent indigo plant (Indigofera tinctoria) from India through the British East India Trade Company https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_India_Company. While the Germans called out an embarkment on Indian Indigo colors the war on indigo continued until the 17th Ce were finally the battle won for the true Indigo. The medieval european indigo production was doomed to decrease and the local and traditional knowledge got lost. Today we are dependent on the synthetical production of Indigo based on petrol chemical industry. The trade and routes of Indigo plant and color shows traces of postcolonial entanglements of a dark history of power and war about local tradition into global industrial production reaching out strings into the dark history of slavery of cotton trade linked to indigo and denim jeans production.
The german term blau machen, meaning to skip work or school and take leisure time. We found out it somehow takes a reference to the medieval technic of dying textiles blue, the process of Blaufärben. Blue coloring was toxic and needed a chemical process to firstly initiate the vat dye bath. We found out that in medieval times this was connected to a celebration of drinkin beer in a community, since it needed lots of pee to create the vat dye bath. We took this as a starting point to render historical narration into a speculative story telling, a quest threw nodes of time and global, spiritual, ecological corelation of trade and cultural exchange in the dark hidden medieval times threw a Ecofeminists point of view.
The second part of our workshop was inducting the dye synthesized solar cell in DIY approach to speculate into role of technics in future e-textiles using implimented dye synthesized solar cells. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC, DSC, DYSC or Grätzel cell) is a low-cost solar cell belonging to the group of thin film solar cells. It is based on a semiconductor formed between a photo-sensitized anode and an electrolyte, a photoelectro-chemical system. The modern version of a dye solar cell, also known as the Grätzel cell, was originally co-invented in 1988 by Brian O'Regan and Michael Grätzel at UC Berkeley and this work was later developed by the aforementioned scientists at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Swiss (EPFL) until the publication of the first high efficiency DSSC in 1991. Michael Grätzel has been awarded the 2010 Millennium Technology Prize for this invention. All Solar Cell Technic is inspired by nature's ability of transforming sun into energy by photosynthesis.
ITO Glass (2 per cell) the smaller the better it works (1cm-2,5cm)
2 clips binder
Alcohol and Distilled water to clean
small plastic cups for working
Titanium Dioxid (power, 1g)
Acrylic emulsion (little to mix into the Titanium Dioxid)
—> create a thick paste
60 ml Wasser
3ml sodium hydroxide solution 30%
3g NAtriumdithionit (Na2S2O4)
—> mixe all in 40 degree, let sit for 30min
Manual How to
You need two conductive glasses (ITO), take one and put conductive tape on the in square shape to create an empty square, make sure to use the conductive side of the glass. spill the thik paste on the glass and spread it onto the the surface in a thin layer, let it dry for 2 min. Put the glass (takeoff the tape first) on a cooker to heat up on 60 degrees during 10-20min for hardening the Titanium Dioxid paste. take off and let it cool down.
Dive the plate with the titanium dioxide into the indigo color and let sit for 30sec-1min. Take it out and clean it off with droplets of destilled water, repeat with isopropanol (this helps to let it dry out faster) Take the other conductive glass and draw a thin layer of pencil strokes on it, push hard. Or use a candle and create a thin layer of carbon black on top of the conductive surface.
Put the two glasses in sandwich layer on top of each other. Let free some glass on both sides and fix it with two clip binder. Put dropplets of Iodine solution on the edge of each side, so the liquid can fluid in between the two glasses. Attach on each side (only one layer of glass) the aligatorclips with the multimeter. Now you can mesure the electricity with your digital multimeter (put on step 200mV). Firstly you will see how a high number around 260mV will occur and it will drop down. Then wait for about 5 min and try out with the sunlight/torch how the voltage is changing according to the light exposure.
Parameters to play around
- try out your own protocols by using charcoal powder and acrylic emulsion to mix into the titanium dioxide
- try out different naturla dyes to stain: blueberry, raspberry, butterfly pea tea, chlorophylle
- using different temperatures and durations to heat up the titanium dioxide paste
- take alternative materials: try to replace the glass with transparent conductive bioplastic, paper, kombucha
- Drink beer or butterfly pea tea while doing --> "blau machen" means take time off, take a break.
At the mean time in Taiwan
In addition to indigo dye, we also tried different natural dyes including persimmon dye, shulang dye.
The first row from left to right: indigo dye from tank built in 2019 Jan 21th, indigo dye from tank built in 2019 June 7th, indigo sludge, indigo sludge.
The second row from left to right: 8 years old persimmon juice, 8 years old persimmon juice, 10 years old perssimmon juice, shulang juice.
Document by Hsiao Ling
Here's the response from Winlin and Ms Hsiao about the indigo dyeing history.
Instead of calling it the history of colonization on indigo dyeing in Taiwan, it's more precise to say the history of immigration, as most of the materials and techniques originally come from Hokkian, China. It's a traditional craft of Han Chinese. It's also controvesial to say the Dutch people "colonized" Taiwan as they only "occupied" part of Taiwan.
When the Dutch people came to Taiwan, they brought Indigo from India and some professionals from Hokkian, trying to develop indigo dyeing industry in Taiwan, but they failed. Until the Zheng Chenggong period (the beginning of Qing Dynasty), Han people brought Strobilanthes Cusia to Taiwan, they successfully grew it in Sanxia, an area famous for indigo dyeing nowadays. Till today Strobilanthes cusia is still one of the main species Taiwanese people use for indigo dyes.
Another specie of indigo material is called Indigofera tinctoria, which disappeared in Taiwan for a long time and was found and revived in 1995 by Miss Ma, an Indigo dyeing professional, who afterwards host workshops for reviving the indigo dyeing using seeds of Indigofera tinctoria in NTCRI. Winlin and Ms Hsiao were part of the team. And nowadays you can find the specie in middle and south part of Taiwan.
We are not sure about the origin of Indigofera tinctoria. It could be the one imported from India by the Dutch people. For now it is mainly grown in the middle and south part of Taiwan.
The import of chemical dyes did give an impact on natural dyeing industry. The farmers would rather grew rice and sugarcane than the Indigofera tinctoria, and grow tea instead of Strobilanthes cusia, as the economic value of rice, sugar and tea is much higher than the indigo materials. (edited)
Grätzel-Cell (Wikipedia) = DSSC
Wikipedia about the Inventior Prof. Dr. M. Grätzel --> he might will win a Nobelprize, teaching in Lausanne, CH
Explenation video: what happenes inside the DSSC-Zell on molecular level
Prof. Dr. M. Grätzel and his invention (German)
Making a Solar Cell From Toothpaste!
Foucault, the Other Spaces, and Human Behaviour
Influence of the counter electrode on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using a disulfide/thiolate redox electrolyte, by Julian Burschka,a Vincent Brault,b Shahzada Ahmad,ac Livain Breau,b Mohammad K. Nazeeruddin,a Benoît Marsan, Shaik M. Zakeeruddin and Michael Grätzel.